Main Article Content

Ivanny O. Y. Sinaga
Dwie Astrini
Raden B. Indradi

Page: 287-291


Traditional medicine comes from safe ingredients, namely, parts of plants. Based on BPOM No. 32 of 2019, several bacteria are required for the quality of traditional medicines in Indonesia, including Escherichia coli, Clostridia, Salmonella, and Shigella. An optimal pH medium is also needed in the microbial contamination test to produce optimal bacterial growth data. The method used is library search using electronic databases such as Google Scholar and Pubmed with the keywords "Effect of pH on bacterial growth" and other keywords related to microbes and types of bacterial contamination. The inclusion criteria were the sources published in the last ten years, either in English or Indonesian, with exclusion criteria being any sources published that did not discuss the effect of pH on bacterial growth. A total of 24 articles were found, with the final result being 11 articles reviewed. It was found that a difference in pH of at least 0.5 can significantly affect the growth of bacteria.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sinaga, I. O. Y., Astrini, D., & Indradi, R. B. (2023). Article Review: Effect of pH on Bacterial Growth as Traditional Medicines Quality Specification in Indonesia. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences, 6(1), 287–291.
Review Article


Arena, E. T., Campbell-Valois, F.-X., Tinevez, J.-Y., Nigro, G., Sachse, M., Moya-Nilges, M., … Sansonetti, P. J. (2015). Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(25), E3282-90.

Arivo, D., & Annissatussholeh, N. (2017). Pengaruh Tekanan Osmotik pH, dan Suhu Terhadap Pertumbuhan Bakteri Escherichia Coli. Jurnal Ilmu Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan, 4(3), 153–160.

Aulani, F. N. (2019). Cara BPOM Memastikan Keamanan Obat Tradisional di Masyarakat. Farmasetika.Com (Online), 3(2), 24.

Chiang, I.-L., Wang, Y., Fujii, S., Muegge, B. D., Lu, Q., Tarr, P. I., & Stappenbeck, T. S. (2021). Biofilm Formation and Virulence of Shigella flexneri Are Modulated by pH of Gastrointestinal Tract. Infection and Immunity, 89(11), e0038721.

Denamur, E., Clermont, O., Bonacorsi, S., & Gordon, D. (2021). The population genetics of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 19(1), 37–54.

Khalil, I. A., Troeger, C., Blacker, B. F., Rao, P. C., Brown, A., Atherly, D. E., … Reiner, R. C. J. (2018). Morbidity and mortality due to shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016. The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, 18(11), 1229–1240.

Kim, C., Bushlaibi, M., Alrefaei, R., Ndegwa, E., Kaseloo, P., & Wynn, C. (2019). Influence of prior pH and thermal stresses on thermal tolerance of foodborne pathogens. Food Science & Nutrition, 7(6), 2033–2042.

Li, T., Tian, R., Cai, K., Wang, Q., Chen, F., Fang, H., … Wang, H. (2013). The effect of pH on growth of clostridium botulinum type a and expression of bontA and botR during different growth stages. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 10(8), 692–697.

Merialdi, G., Ramini, M., Parolari, G., Barbuti, S., Frustoli, M. A., Taddei, R., … Cozzolino, P. (2016). Study on potential clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production in Parma ham. Italian Journal of Food Safety, 5(2), 69–74.

NHS. (2022). Herbal Medicines. Retrieved August 6, 2022, from medicines are those with,harmful if not used correctly.

Organization, W. H. (2018). Salmonella (non-typhoidal). Retrieved November 6, 2022, from

Parija, S. C. (2012). Microbiology Immunology (2nd ed.). India: Elsevier.

Pelczar, M. J., Chan, E. C. S., & Hadioetomo, R. S. (1988). Dasar-dasar mikrobiologi. Penerbit Universitas Indonesia. Retrieved from

Riley, L. W. (2020). Distinguishing Pathovars from Nonpathovars: Escherichia coli. Microbiology Spectrum, 8(4).

Sulistiyoningrum, R., Suprijanto, J., & Sabdono, A. (2013). AKTIVITAS ANTI BAKTERI KITOSAN DARI CANGKANG KERANG SIMPING PADA KONDISI LINGKUNGAN YANG BERBEDA : KAJIAN PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH KERANG SIMPING (Amusium sp.). Journal Of Marine Research., Vol. 2, pp. 111–117.

The, H. C., Thanh, D. P., Holt, K. E., Thomson, N. R., & Baker, S. (2016). The genomic signatures of Shigella evolution, adaptation and geographical spread. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 14(4), 235–250.

Tiwari, A., & Nagalli, S. (2022). Clostridium Botulinum. Treasure Island (FL).

Utami, S., Bintari, S. H., & Susanti, R. (2018). Deteksi Escherichia coli pada jamu gendong di gunungpati dengan medium selektif diferensial. Life Science, 7(2), 73–81.

Viana Brandi, I., Domenici Mozzer, O., Jorge, E. Vander, Vieira Passos, F. J., Lopes Passos, F. M., Cangussu, A. S. R., & Macedo Sobrinho, E. (2014). Growth conditions of clostridium perfringens type B for production of toxins used to obtain veterinary vaccines. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 37(9), 1737–1742.

Wetzel, D., & McBride, S. M. (2020). The impact of pH on clostridioides difficile sporulation and physiology. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 86(4).

World Health Organization. (2022). Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine. Retrieved from