Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences <p>Thank you for visiting the Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences (e-ISSN: 2656-3088). It is with great pleasure that the first issue of the JJournal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences is released to the academic world, which is intended to accommodate the needs of researchers to publish their work. The Faculty of Pharmacy at Tjut Nyak Dhien University publishes this journal. This journal's publisher is dedicated to advancing research and knowledge in the pharmaceutical, science, and health fields. Articles that have been published can be accessed and downloaded online by the public (open-access journal). Manuscripts can be submitted to the Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences in Indonesian and English. The Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences has been accredited by the Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education, Republic of Indonesia. With a SINTA accreditation rating of 4. Certificate No. 164/E/KPT/2021 (<a href="">download Certificate</a>).</p> <p><strong>Journal Migration</strong></p> <p>As of January 1, 2023, Volume 6 number 1, the Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences has migrated to a new website at <a href=""></a>. While the old version (volume 1 to volume 5) can still be accessed as usual at the URL: <a href=""></a> or <a href=""></a>.</p> <p><a href=""><strong>Submit your manuscript via the new website</strong></a></p> Fakultas Farmasi Universitas Tjut Nyak Dhien en-US Journal of Pharmaceutical and Sciences 2656-3088 Effect of ball milling on ibuprofen solid dispersion with HPMC carrier on particle size and capsule dissolution rate <p>One factor that greatly influences the active drug solubility is particle size. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory that is poorly water-soluble, potentially slowing its drug dissolution. Milling is one way to reduce particle size and help to enhance drug dissolution. This research aims to study the milling process effect on the particle size of ibuprofen and the capsule dissolution rate. Micrometer-sized ibuprofen (P1) is processed to nanometer size using the wet-milling method for 15 hours (P2) and 20 hours (P3) using HPMC (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) as a stabilising polymer. All particles were evaluated for particle size, and FTIR was tested and formulated into capsules. The powder mass was evaluated for flow properties. Capsule evaluation was also carried out, which included a disintegration time test, weight uniformity test, and dissolution test. The three particles have sizes of 40.6 µm (P1), 438.9 ± 20.9 nm (P2), and 267.1 ± 4.1 nm (P3). FTIR test results show compatibility between ibuprofen and HPMC. The disintegration time test results and capsule weight uniformity met the compendial requirements. Based on the dissolution test, the three formulas showed significant differences (sig p 0.0002 &lt; 0.05) in the per cent dissolution. Obtained Q60 F1-F3 respectively were 99.61 ± 8.75%; 110.03±5.97%; and 115.95 ± 3.34%. The conclusion obtained is that the milling process has a significant effect on the dissolution percentage of ibuprofen<strong>.</strong></p> Nining Nining Inding Gusmayadi Febri Romansyah Copyright (c) 2024 Nining Nining, Inding Gusmayadi, Febri Romansyah 2024-02-15 2024-02-15 1 9 10.36490/ Associated effective communication on outpatient registration officers with patient satisfaction at Adven Hospital Medan <p><em>Effective communication is conveying thoughts or information from one person to another so that others grasp what the information provider means. Effective communication is required while working with patients; if it is not used effectively, it will disrupt the connection, resulting in patient discontent. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of outpatient registration officers' communication associated with patient satisfaction at&nbsp; Advent Hospital Medan 2023.</em> <em>The research method was quantitative, using a cross-sectional approach. The population consisted of all outpatients registered at the Outpatient Patient Registration, including 28,963 respondents. Purposive sampling was utilized in this investigation, with a total sample of 100 respondents. The Chi-Square test used univariate and bivariate data analyses</em><em>. </em><em>The results showed that the respect variable had a p-value value of 0,000 &lt;0.05, the empathy variable had a p-value value of 0,000 &lt;0,05, the audible variable had a p-value value of 0.000 &lt;0.05, the clarity variable had a p-value value 0,000 &lt;0.05 and the Humble variable has a P-value value of 0,000 &lt;0.05</em><em>. </em><em>According to the findings of this study, respect, empathy, audibility, lucidity, and humble outpatient registration officers are associated with patient happiness. The registration officer advised to develop effective contact with patients to promote patient satisfaction with health services.</em></p> Dyna Safitri Rakhelmi Rangkuti Andini Mentari Tarigan Panjaitan Hanyita Rachelia Copyright (c) 2024 Dyna Safitri Rakhelmi Rangkuti, Andini Mentari Tarigan, Panjaitan Hanyita Rachelia 2024-02-18 2024-02-18 10 19 10.36490/ Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical / Define Daily Dose for evaluation of bronchopneumonia pediatric antibiotics use at Roemani Muhammadiyah Hospital <p>The increase in repeat hospitalizations after the covid19 pandemic with bronchopneumonia diagnoses in pediatric patients is the first rank. Therapeutic management was associated with the length of hospitalization. Pediatric bronchopneumonia is the case with antibiotic therapy. Current guidelines recommend first-line and alternative options in the management of antibiotic therapy for pneumonia in hospitalized pediatric patients. Empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy for acute infections with consideration of the common etiology of possible pneumococcal involvement The risk of resistance increases with the massive use of antibiotics. The study had an observational descriptive design with retrospective data collection from 280 samples of pediatric patients, aiming to evaluate the use of antibiotics with the ATC/DDD method. Based on empirical selected therapy DDD (Define Daily Dose)/100 patient days, the quantity of antibiotics that are widely used is ceftriaxon 38.36 DDD /100 patient days followed by Cefoperazon sulbactam 3.88 DDD /100 patient days, Cefotaxime 3.77 DDD /100 patient days, Gentamicin 2.57 DDD /100 patient days, Amikacin 1. 70 DDD /100 patient days, Azithromycin 0.76 DDD /100 patient days, Ampicillin Sulbactam 0.50 DDD /100 patient days, Cefixime 0.27 DDD /100 patient days, and Meropenem 0.13 DDD /100 patient days. Drug data included in DU90% are Ceftriaxon, Cefoperzon Sulbactam, Cefotaxime. From the research conducted, the highest DDD/100 patient days value was Ceftriaxon. DDD value indicates high use of antibiotics, does not mean unreasonable use of drugs, so a qualitative review must be done<strong>.</strong></p> Rissa Maharani Dewi Nanda Maprillia Nindita Sari Nastiti Copyright (c) 2024 Rissa Maharani Dewi , Nanda Maprillia , Nindita Sari Nastiti 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 20 25 10.36490/ The effect of concentration variation on the physical properties and stability tests of freeze-thaw cycling on gel formula for the combination of moringa leaf extract and lime leaf extract <p><em>Moringa leaves are a major source of antioxidant compounds due to their high content in carotenoids, ascorbic acid, glucosinolates and other bioactives. Lime contains elements of useful chemical compounds, such as alkaloids, polysaccharides, flavonoids, and essential oils. This study aims to obtain a gel formula that is physically stable and stable during storage using the Freeze-Thaw Cycling method from Moringa leaf extract and lime leaf extract. This research is a laboratory experimental research. Gel preparation was carried out with varying concentrations of Moringa leaf extract and lime leaf extract F1 (75%:25%), F2 (50%:50%), and F3 (25%:75%). Testing the physical properties of the gel includes organoleptic, pH, homogeneity, viscosity, spreadability, adhesion and syneresis. The stability test carried out was a stability test using the Freeze-Thaw Cycling method for 3 cycles by observing the stability to be carried out where each cycle observed physical changes in the gel including organoleptic, homogeneity and pH. The results of gel preparations of the combination of ethanol extract of moringa leaves and lime leaves of formulations 1, 2, and 3 with differences in the concentration of the active substance were declared stable, because there was no significant change from organoleptic observations, homogeneity, pH, adhesion and spreadability. However, statistical tests stated that the 4</em><em>℃</em><em> temperature adhesion test obtained a p value (&lt;0.05) and a 40</em><em>℃</em><em> temperature p value (&gt;0.05), while the 4</em><em>℃</em><em> and 40</em><em>℃</em><em> temperature spreadability test obtained a p value (&lt;0. 05)</em><strong>.</strong></p> Intan Juliana Annisa Fatmawati Muhammad Abdurrahman Munir Emelda Emelda Feti Rahmawati Copyright (c) 2024 Intan Juliana, Annisa Fatmawati, Muhammad Abdurrahman Munir, Emelda, Feti Rahmawati 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 26 34 10.36490/ Acute toxicity test of rattan cell extract (Daemonorop melanochaetes Bl.) on shrimp larva (Artemia Salina Leach) using the brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) method <p>Cell rattan is very popular because it has properties in treating malaria, diabetes and also has appetite-stimulating properties. The chemical content of rattan consists of flavonoids, alcohol, triterpenoids, saponins and glycosides. Flavonoids consist of 15 carbon atoms with a C6-C3-C6 structure. In plants, flavonoids are bound to sugars in the form of flavonoid glycosides and aglycones. Research methods include making rattan extract using the maceration method, phytochemical screening, toxicity activity testing using the BSLT (Brine Shrimp Lethality Test) method and determining the LC<sub>50</sub> value based on the probit value. The research results show that rattan extract contains secondary metabolite compounds, including steroids/triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and alkaloids. The results of the toxicity activity test showed that the LC<sub>50</sub> value was 322 ppm and was included in the toxic category.</p> Athaillah Athaillah Roqayyah Maulida Lubis Putra Chandra Aswan Pangondian Robiatun Rambe Copyright (c) 2024 Athaillah, Roqayyah Maulida Lubis, Putra Chandra, Aswan Pangondian, Robiatun Rambe 2024-02-22 2024-02-22 35 42 10.36490/ Lifestyle description of hypertensive patients in the Pamolokan health center of Sumenep city district of Sumenep regency in 2023 <p>Hypertension, a widespread global health issue, significantly contributes to the burden of non-communicable diseases. Its escalating prevalence globally and in Indonesia necessitates a comprehensive understanding of associated lifestyle patterns. This study, conducted at Pamolokan Health Center in Sumenep City District, Sumenep Regency, in 2023, focuses on the lifestyles of hypertensive patients. Globally, hypertension affects a substantial portion of the population, impacting public health significantly. In Indonesia, the prevalence of hypertension has steadily risen, prompting a focused examination of contributing factors. Among 85 hypertensive respondents, those aged 36-45 comprised 74.12%, with females constituting 76.67%. Hypertension severity varied, with 55.29% experiencing grade 1 hypertension. The study assessed lifestyle components, revealing 23.53% smoking, 67.06% favouring salty foods, 52.94% consuming fatty foods, 58.82% indulging in coffee, and 35.29% reporting regular physical activity. Understanding the lifestyle patterns of hypertensive patients is crucial for devising targeted interventions. This study's findings illuminate the interplay between age, gender, hypertension severity, and lifestyle choices. Insights contribute to the hypertension management and prevention discourse, emphasising the imperative of tailored public health strategies to address this global health challenge<strong>.</strong></p> Nadiyah Ulfa Henry Purbowo Sintoro Prajogo Wibowo Ronald Pratama A. Copyright (c) 2024 Nadiyah Ulfa, Henry Purbowo Sintoro, Prajogo Wibowo, Ronald Pratama Adiwinoto 2024-03-02 2024-03-02 43 50 10.36490/ Analysis of the influence of emergency room services on patient satisfaction at Omni Cikarang Hospital in 2021 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> The Emergency Room (IGD) is one of the service units in hospitals that provides first aid. Emergency services provided must meet good service quality. Patients are satisfied with the services of nurses in the ER if the patient's expectations are met. According to WHO, health systems should strive to make improvements in six areas or dimensions of quality. <strong>Objectives:</strong> To analyze the effect of emergency services on patient satisfaction at OMNI Cikarang Hospital in 2021. <strong>Method:</strong> This type of research is an analytical survey method with a cross sectional approach. The research was carried out at OMNI Cikarang General Hospital. The population of this study were emergency room patients with the number of samples in this study as many as 92 people through the calculation of the slovin formula. Sampling using accidental sampling technique. Data analysis used univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis. <strong>Results:</strong> Showed that the respondents who were satisfied were 40 people (43.5%) and 52 people (56.5%) were not satisfied with the emergency room service. The results of the chi-square statistical test showed that the variables of effectiveness, efficient, accessible, acceptable, impartial and safe had an influence on patient satisfaction with a p value of &lt;0.05. Simultaneous test results showed that the effectiveness factor was the most dominant factor influencing patient satisfaction in the OMNI Cikarang Emergency Room. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is an effect of effectiveness, efficiency, access, acceptable, impartial and safe has an effect on patient satisfaction in the ER OMNI Cikarang. It is recommended to health workers to always improve better services in order to increase patient satisfaction as users of health services.</em></p> Aristya Maulida Safuranti Arifah Devi Fitriani Ramadhani Syafitri Nasution Copyright (c) 2024 Aristya Maulida Safuranti, Arifah Devi Fitriani, Ramadhani Syafitri Nasution 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 67 78 10.36490/ Relationship between nutritional status and the incidence of tuberculosis transmission in the family in Batusumur Village, Manonjaya Subdistrict Tasikmalaya Regency <p>Tuberculosis is the second infectious disease that causes the most deaths in the world according to WHO. Indonesia is a high TB burden country which currently ranks third in the world, with an incidence of 845.000 or 320/100.000 population with a mortality rate of 98.000 or 40/100.000 population and 3,6/100.000 TB-HIV population. The risk factor that can cause tuberculosis disease is malnutrition. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and the incidence of tuberculosis transmission in the family. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between nutritional status and the incidence of tuberculosis. The research design used cross sectional study. The research was conducted in December 2023 in Batusumur Village, Manonjaya District, Tasikmalaya Regency. The research sample was 39 respondents of tuberculosis patients. Inclusion criteria: patients actively communicate and are easy to talk to, patients live with family members and are still in the initial phase of treatment in the first 2 months. The independent variable was nutritional status. The dependent variable was the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis transmission in family members. The instrument was an observation sheet. Data were analyzed by chi square test using SPSS. This research applies the principles of confidentiality, useful information and scientific development. The results showed that there was a relationship between nutritional status (p=0,026) and the incidence of tuberculosis transmission in the family. The conclusion is that there is a relationship between nutritional status and the incidence of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis patients and their families can make preventive efforts to prevent tuberculosis transmission<strong>.</strong></p> Candrawati Puspita Dewi Mursid Raharjo Mateus Sakundarno Adi Copyright (c) 2024 Candrawati Puspita Dewi, Mursid Raharjo, Mateus Sakundarno Adi 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 79 85 10.36490/ In silico study of flavonoid compounds from dadap serep (Erythrina subumbrans) twigs and roots as antipyretics <p>Studies in silico offer an exciting world where researchers use the power of computing to explore a variety of scientific phenomena. In silico allows researchers to virtually test thousands of potential compounds, including natural ingredients, interacting with biological targets. This can speed up drug discovery and reduce reliance on expensive laboratory trials. <em>Erythrina subumbrans</em> is a plant in the <em>Papilonaceae</em> family that has been phytochemically tested to contain flavonoids suspected of having antipyretic effects. The study aims to identify the most potentially antipyretic compounds among the eight flavonoid groups of the branches and roots of Dadap Serep (<em>Erythrina subumbrans</em>). The study uses the molecular docking method. Tests were conducted against eight flavonoids of the branches and roots of the Dadap serep, namely <em>pinocembrin</em>, <em>3,6,4’-trichydroxyflavone</em>, <em>3,6-dihydroxylflavon</em>, <em>lupalbigenin</em>, <em>erysubin F</em>, <em>genistein</em>, <em>5-hydroxyphoronone</em>, and <em>abyssinone V,</em> as well as positive controls of <em>paracetamol</em> against target proteins with PDB code 1CX2. The data analysis compared the total binding energy and hydrogen binding scores on the emerging amino acid residues. The test results showed that the three most potentially antipyretic compounds were <em>lupalbigenin</em>, <em>erysubin F</em>, and <em>abyssinone V</em>, with consecutive total bending energy scores of -126.3 kcal/mol, -113.1 kcal/mol, and -111.8 kcal/mol.</p> Mahkota Alda Mora Montero Arief Kusuma Wardani Copyright (c) 2024 Mahkota Alda Mora Montero, Arief Kusuma Wardani 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 86 93 10.36490/ In vitro and in silico evaluation of toxicological and anti-proliferative activity in phytochemical compounds of several solvent extracts from Zaleya pentandra L <p>Therapeutic plants and herbals are vital superior nutrient resources mainly used in diet and recognised for treating various diseases. The study's main objective is to investigate phytochemicals compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities on five <em>Zaleya pentandra</em> extract (ZPE), ethanol, hexane, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol for the first time. Methods: The study was conducted using the HPLC-MS, and measurements were made in three replicates. Results: The most significant extracts, revealing 13compounds, which appear higher content (417.5±0.44 μg/g and (407.5±0.04 μg/g), value of ZPE in total β-Sitosterol and dioctyl phthalate, respectively, also the total polyphenol content (TPC) was significantly (p≤0.05) higher mainly in acetone (323.06±1.74mg GAE/g), ethyl acetate (220 ± 1.00) mg GAE/g), and hexane herbal extracts (75.2±1.70) mg QE/g) with a significant difference (P≤0.05) in total flavonoid content. Discussion: All investigated bacterial strains had an exceptionally high effect against B. subtilis. A computational analysis qualified a significant drug-likeness feature, including toxicological and pharmacokinetic assessments. ZP acetone extract is an appropriate selection for creating contemporary antibacterial compounds. Conclusions: The current study offers new information on applying ZPE in novel and potentially effective therapeutic agents, its application in the food industry, and the treatment of different diseases<strong>.</strong></p> Mohamed O. Elsamani Copyright (c) 2024 Mohamed O. Elsamani 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 100 114 10.36490/ Analysis of the nutritional content of chicken nuggets fortified with Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera) <p><em>The aim of this research was to observe the nutritional value enhancement of nugget products after fortification with moringa leaf powder. The research method employed was an experimental approach through a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) non-factorial with 4 treatments and 4 replications for each treatment. The treatments included in this study were without moringa leaf powder (A0), 5% moringa leaf powder (A1), 10% moringa leaf powder (A2), and 15% moringa leaf powder (A3). The parameters observed were the protein content, fat content, and water content of the nugget samples. The research results indicate that fortification with moringa leaves significantly increased the water content (by 53.63%) and protein content (by 13.21%), while significantly reducing the fat content (by 9.90%). This effect was observed across various concentrations, with the optimal concentration found in treatment A3</em><strong>.</strong></p> Muhammad Aris Nur Asmaq Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Aris, Nur Asmaq 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 115 122 10.36490/ Use of moringa leaves (Moringa Leifra) in fortifcation for manufacturing nuggets <p>The aim of this research was to determine the quality of chicken nuggets by adding moringa leaf flour (<em>Moringa leifra</em>) in the manufacturing process. The materials used in this research were broiler chicken meat, Moringa leaf flour, wheat flour, bread flour, eggs, tapioca flour, shallots, garlic, oil, pepper, salt and other kitchen spices. The method used in this research was an experimental method with a completely randomized non-factorial design with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The parameters tested were Antioxidants, Cholesterol, and Total Bacterial Colonies. The treatments in this study were P0 (without the addition of <em>Moringa</em> leaves); P1 (addition of 5% Moringa leaf flour); P2 (addition of 10% Moringa leaf flour), P3 (Addition of 15% <em>Moringa</em> leaf flour). The results of this study showed that the addition of Moringa leaf flour in making chicken nuggets had a very significant effect (P&lt;0.01) on antioxidant and cholesterol levels.</p> Syaiful Nasri Matondang Nur Asmaq Copyright (c) 2024 Syaiful Nasri Matondang , Nur Asmaq 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 123 129 10.36490/ The role of pharmacists in handling self-medication minor illness cases at the pharmacy <p>Health is a crucial part of life. An individual's level of living is reflected in their state of health. The most important thing to do if the person has health issues at any point is to make every effort to heal through self-medication. Preparing this article is to evaluate how healthy pharmacists perform self-medication and make drug selections to enhance public health. Self-medication is typically used to cure common minor health issues, such as skin infections, worm infections, coughs, influenza, stomach ulcers, dizziness, coughing, diarrhea, and coughing up blood. The research in question was derived from search engine results and examined pharmacists' capacity to prescribe medications for mild ailments. According to the search results in several journals, the overall accuracy rate of recommendations for children experiencing acute diarrhea is 13.09%; for diarrhea, including blood, it is 34.52%; for dyspepsia due to side effects of Diclofenac Sodium, it is 21%; and for dyspepsia without alarm, symptoms is 83%. According to research findings, enhancing pharmacists' capacity to offer drug guidance while facilitating self-medication is crucial<strong>.</strong></p> Yasmin Ramadania Burhanudin Dolih Gozali Copyright (c) 2024 Yasmin Ramadania Burhanudin, Dolih Gozali 2024-03-03 2024-03-03 51 57 10.36490/ Article review: Utilization of maternal and child health insurance in delivery services at district or city health centers in Indonesia <p><em>Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is one of the government's targets in public health services to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The UHC is a crucial and urgent resolution for all nations to expand health systems with equal access and affordable costs. The program is one of the efforts to lower the maternal and infant mortality rate. As a healthcare provider, public health centers must ensure optimal care and services. Public health centers realize that providing health care refers to the core health efforts program. This research aims to analyze maternal and child health insurance use in maternity services in Public health centers. The analysis uses the study methodology of the literature review library with search engines used in literature searches such as Google Scholar and PubMed with the keywords Birth Assurance, Public Health Centers, Sustainable Development Goals, and Universal Health Coverage. The survey results show that the use of maternity guarantees for the population in Public health centers in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, responsiveness, uniformity, and accuracy still needs to be better achieved. The research identifies differences between people's expectations of quality of health care and the realities experienced, focusing on the various dimensions that make up quality of service. These dimensions include reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangible. The conclusion of this study suggests that services in Public health centers should be continuously improved through capacity improvements, improvements or renovations of infrastructure and systems, as well as some programs with preventive, promotional, and empowerment of the public to UHC.</em></p> <p><em><span style="font-weight: 400;"> </span></em></p> Salman Salman Indah Laily Hilmi Alfina Oktavianti Isyana Salsabila Sepiyani Ayu Lestari Devy Kasih Putria Welly Windari Copyright (c) 2024 Salman, Indah Laily Hilmi, Alfina Oktavianti, Isyana Salsabila, Sepiyani Ayu Lestari, Devy Kasih Putria, Welly Windari 2024-03-13 2024-03-13 58 66 10.36490/ Analysis of Potential Interactions BetweenAnalysis of potential interactions between drugs in polypharmacy prescriptions in Bandung City pharmacies <p><em>Problems that can occur in drug prescribing patterns are Drug Related Problems (DRP), which can affect the patient's clinical condition. One type of DRP that often occurs is drug interactions. Drug interactions cause changes in the effect of a drug due to the presence of other drugs taken simultaneously, which will cause a decrease in the therapeutic effect of the drug and increase toxicity in the body. Therefore, drug interactions were identified from general practitioner prescriptions at one of the Bandung City pharmacies. General practitioner prescription data was taken from July-September 2023 at the pharmacy in Bandung City, namely 202 prescriptions, and categorized based on their severity using the website drug, com. The results of this identification showed that 32 prescriptions had interactions between drugs with different levels of severity, showing that 2 prescriptions (6%) had drug interactions of different types. In the majority, 24 prescriptions (75%) had moderate drug-type interactions, and 6 recipes (19%) had minor.</em></p> Nazela Constantia Hilyatul Aulia Anas Subarnas Copyright (c) 2024 Nazela Constantia Hilyatul Aulia, Anas Subarnas 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 94 99 10.36490/