Bacterial resistance to antibiotics causes the death rate to increase. In dealing with this problem, studies were carried out, one of which was by utilizing natural medicinal ingredients such as bawang sabrang (Eleutherine palmifolia Merr.) of the Iridaceae family. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of the residual fraction of the ethanolic extract of bawang sabrang bulbs (Eleutherine palmifolia Merr.) against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and to determine the class of chemical compounds.
Extraction was carried out by maceration using ethanol as a solvent and continued by successive fractionation using n-hexane and ethylacetate solvents, so that the remaining fraction was obtained. Antibacterial activity testing was carried out in vitro using the agar diffusion method using metal rings at concentrations of 20 mg/ml, 10 mg/ml and 5 mg/ml against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus pumilus ATCC 7061, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ATCC 25923, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, Propionibacterium acne ATCC 6918, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29737, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228) and gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, Salmonella thypi ATCC 29213). The analysis of the chemical compound group of the residual fraction was carried out using a phytochemical screening technique.
The residual fraction of the ethanolic extract of bawang sabrang bulbs had antibacterial activity on all the tested bacteria. The chemical compounds contained in the remaining fraction of the ethanolic extract of bawang sabrang bulbs are alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids, and steroids.
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